Welsh hopes of progressing were hanging by a thread heading into a Group B finale in which Gareth Southgate’s men only needed to avoid a four-goal loss to progress to the last 16.
The 104th meeting of the old foes was the first to be played at a World Cup and England comprehensively won Tuesday’s clash 3-0 in the desert as Phil Foden scored either side of Rashford’s fine goals.
The reward is a last-16 meeting with Senegal on Sunday, by which point Robert Page’s side will have long since left Qatar after their first appearance on the world stage in 64 years ended in frustration.
Wales’ draw with the United States and heart-breaking late loss to Iran meant they faced an uphill battle against their neighbours, who controlled a lifeless first half without creating too many clear-cut chances.
Chesney Hawkes’ surprising half-time appearance was the most entertaining moment of the evening until the 50th minute, when Rashford stepped up to score a stupendous free-kick.
But it was not to be his one and only goal in Al Rayyan.
Foden turned home a fine Harry Kane cross within two minutes of the opener, before Rashford ended a mazy run by finishing through back-up goalkeeper Danny Ward’s legs.
The 25-year-old, making his first England start since June 2021, left to a standing ovation when he was substituted late on.