The comedian was taking part in a Neflix Joke festival and was performing on stage at the time of the incident.
Eyewitnesses say an attacker “lunged” at the comedian as he closed the evening, sending him “flying in the air”, according to reports in the US media.
US reporter Sharon Carpenter, who hosts the Loose Lips podcast, was at the show and shared her account on social media.
The LA-based reporter tweeted: “Dave Chappelle was just assaulted on stage at his Hollywood Bowl show.
“He was finishing up his performance when a man ran on-stage and lunged at him knocking him to the floor. Security and his entourage then cornered the man as Dave joked about him getting ‘stomped’ backstage.”
Carpenter then posted a video direct to camera to tell her followers what happened.
“A man ran on stage, lunged at Dave, knocking him to the floor,” she said.
“And then, Dave's security, his entourage managed to get the guy off, had him in the corner."
Carpenter said: “It looked like someone was dashing across the stage from the side. It was a little hard to see because people were standing up at that point and leaving. But it looked like someone dashed from the side of the stage, lunged at Dave and all I saw was Dave basically flying in the air.
“He fell backwards on to his back, with his arms and legs up in the air. He was obviously in shock. We were all in shock. And I thought for a moment ‘OK, is this a prank?’ Because they had made some Will Smith jokes.
"Even though Chris Rock was there, Dave was making some jokes, it was fair game, right? He was making some jokes about the situation.”
Members of the audience were not allowed to have their phones at the show to prevent content from leaking out. However, some videos have been shared on social media showing a man tackling the comedian.
Actor Jamie Foxx joined Chappelle and helped apprehend the alleged attacker before the performance continued, with footage also showing the actor helping Chappelle up following the incident.
According to reports, Chappelle joked “Whenever you’re in trouble, Jamie Foxx will show up in a sheriff’s hat.”
A spokeswoman for the Hollywood Bowl said an investigation has been launched after Chappelle was attacked during an event at the Los Angeles venue.
“The incident that occurred at the Hollywood Bow is an active investigation and we are unable to comment further at this time,” she added.
Jimmy Carr shared a selfie taken with Chappelle, tweeting“The Hollywood Bowl show with the legendary Dave Chappelle was crazy. Just happy everyone’s OK.”
Chappelle has previously faced a backlash over comments about transgender people in his Netflix comedy special The Closer.
The comedian said “gender is a fact” and gave his backing to Harry Potter author JK Rowling, who has also attracted criticism for her remarks about the concept of biological sex.
Netflix employees were said to have reacted with anger to his comments and reportedly organised a walkout over the streaming giant’s decision to air the special.